1. There is no difference between an astronaut and a cosmonaut – they are just different names used by the Americans (astronaut) and Russians (cosmonaut).
2. You have entered ‘space’ when you reach 100km above sea level.
3. Valentina Tereshkova became the first woman to enter space, in 1963.
4. The longest continuous time spent in space was the 437 days spent aboard aboard the Mir space station by Russian astronaut, Valeri Polyakov.
5. It would take about 9 months for a manned spacecraft to reach Mars (which is an average of 250 million km from Earth). A big problem would be taking the heavy load of food required.